This paper quantifies the infrastructure needs and associated costs for implementing battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell trucks in three applications: long-haul intercity tractor-trailers, drayage trucks, and medium-duty delivery trucks.
The analysis draws the following conclusions:
- Declining technology costs are making zero-emission trucks increasingly cost-competitive with conventional diesel vehicles.
- Infrastructure costs are significant, but do not fundamentally impede the viability of zero-emission trucks.
- Initial infrastructure buildouts will require careful planning and coordination. Specifically, in the early zero-emission truck deployments, it will be essential to plan infrastructure for specific routes, applications, and duty cycles to minimize costs.